Report
5 Year Change In Alcohol Intake And Risk Of Breast Cancer, Coronary Heart Disease Among Postmenopausal Women

Author
Dam Marie K, Hvidtfeldt Ulla A, Tjønneland Anne, Overvad Kim, Grønbæk Morten, Tolstrup Janne S et al.
Citation
Dam Marie K, Hvidtfeldt Ulla A, Tjønneland Anne, Overvad Kim, Grønbæk Morten, Tolstrup Janne S et al. Five year change in alcohol intake and risk of breast cancer and coronary heart disease among postmenopausal women: prospective cohort study BMJ 2016; 353 :i2314
  • Source
    BMJ
  • Release date
    11/05/2016

Research

Five year change in alcohol intake and risk of breast cancer and coronary heart disease among postmenopausal women: prospective cohort study

Abstract

Objective

To test the hypothesis that postmenopausal women who increase their alcohol intake over a five year period have a higher risk of breast cancer and a lower risk of coronary heart disease compared with stable alcohol intake.

Design

Prospective cohort study.

Setting

Denmark, 1993-2012.

Participants

21 523 postmenopausal women who participated in the Diet, Cancer, and Health Study in two consecutive examinations in 1993-98 and 1999-2003. Information on alcohol intake was obtained from questionnaires completed by participants.

Main Outcome Measures

Incidence of breast cancer, coronary heart disease, and all cause mortality during 11 years of follow-up. Information was obtained from the Danish Cancer Register, Danish Hospital Discharge Register, Danish Register of Causes of Death, and National Central Person Register. The researchers estimated hazard ratios according to five year change in alcohol intake using Cox proportional hazards models.

Results

During the study, 1054, 1750, and 2080 cases of breast cancer, coronary heart disease, and mortality occurred, respectively. Analyses modelling five year change in alcohol intake with cubic splines showed that women who increased their alcohol intake over the five year period had a higher risk of breast cancer and a lower risk of coronary heart disease than women with a stable alcohol intake.

For instance, women who increased their alcohol intake by seven or 14 drinks per week (corresponding to one or two drinks more per day) had hazard ratios of breast cancer of 1.13 (95% con dence interval 1.03 to 1.23) and 1.29 (1.07 to 1.55), respectively, compared to women with stable intake, and adjusted for age, education, body mass index, smoking, Mediterranean diet score, parity, number of births, and hormone replacement therapy.

For coronary heart disease, corresponding hazard ratios were 0.89 (0.81 to 0.97) and 0.78 (0.64 to 0.95), respectively, adjusted for age, education, body mass index, Mediterranean diet score, smoking, physical activity, hypertension, elevated cholesterol, and diabetes.

Results among women who reduced their alcohol intake over the five year period were not significantly associated with risk of breast cancer or coronary heart disease. Analyses of all cause mortality showed that women who increased their alcohol intake from a high intake (≥14 drinks per week) to an even higher intake had a higher mortality risk than women with a stable high intake.

Conclusion

In this study of postmenopausal women over a five year period, results support the hypotheses that alcohol intake is associated with increased risk of breast cancer and decreased risk of coronary heart disease.

What is already known on this topic

Many studies have shown that alcohol intake is associated with increased risk of breast cancer and decreased risk of coronary heart disease Most evidence consists of observational studies, correlating alcohol intake measured at one point in time with disease incidence

Little is known about the e ect of a change in alcohol intake on the risk of breast cancer and coronary heart disease

Added value of the study

We found that an increased alcohol intake over a ve year period resulted in a higher risk of breast cancer and a lower risk of coronary heart disease among postmenopausal women, compared with a stable alcohol intake Results support the hypotheses that alcohol is associated with breast cancer and coronary heart disease in opposite directions

Source Website: British Medical Journal