The Science Hub provides continues updates about latest scientific reports, as well as a library of key scientific reports on a range of issues. In addition, the Science Hub also offers a database for key reports produced by the UN system relating to alcohol.

  • This page is a hub for the latest scientific reports, allowing you to keep track of the most recent developments and findings concerning alcohol.
  • Below, the page is a library of sources for scientific evidence, providing you with research and scientific analysis of a number of alcohol-related issues.
  • This page is a chronological database of key UN-system publications with regard to alcohol harm and alcohol policy.

IOGT International strives to disseminate the latest scientific evidence and information in order to foster crucial insight in and understanding of the policy-making processes and supply decision-makers and opinion leaders with essential evidence.

We cooperate effectively with independent scientists and academia to encourage research in order to broaden the evidence-base both for understanding the effectiveness of policy measures as well as the impact of our own community interventions.

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GISAH

Global Information System on Alcohol and Health

The World Health Organization (WHO) runs the Global Information System on Alcohol and Health (GISAH) which provides easy and rapid access to a wide range of alcohol-related health indicators. It is an essential tool for assessing and monitoring

  • The health situation and trends related to alcohol consumption,
  • Alcohol-related harm, and
  • Policy responses in countries.

GISAH is a further development of the Global Alcohol Database which has been built since 1997 by the Management of Substance Abuse team in the WHO Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse. Data sources include government documents, national statistics, national and global surveys, WHO Global Survey on Alcohol and Health, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, other intergovernmental organizations, industry data, published scientific articles, and grey literature.

global alcohol consumption 2010

Purpose of GISAH

The main purpose of GISAH is to serve WHO Member States and governmental and non-governmental organizations by making alcohol-related health data available. These data can help to analyse the state of the health situation related to alcohol in a particular country, a WHO region or sub-region, or the world.

GISAH Database

Access GISAH directly and find data about:

  • Levels of Consumption
  • Patterns of Consumption
  • Harms and Consequences
  • Economic Aspects
  • Alcohol Control Policies
  • Prevention, Research, Treatment
  • Youth and alcohol
  • Key alcohol indicators relevant to NCDs

GISAH Theme page

GISAH is an essential tool for assessing and monitoring the health situation and trends related to alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm, and policy responses in countries. The harmful use of alcohol results in the death of 3.3 million people annually.

Access maps, regional information systems, country profiles, reports, and more…

GISAH Indicator Book

Download the indicator book here (PDF).

EISAH

The European Information System on Alcohol and Health (EISAH)

The European Information System on Alcohol and Health (EISAH) provides easy and rapid access to a wide range of alcohol-related health statistics. This joint project of the European Commission, WHO headquarters and WHO Europe is part of GISAH (see above).

EISAH is an essential tool for assessing and monitoring the health situation and trends as related to alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and policy responses in countries.

A set of indicators was chosen to assess the most important aspects of the alcohol situation in WHO Member States as they relate to public health. The indicators are grouped into broad categories. Under each broad category there are “topics” and a number of “sub-topics”.

The categories

  1. Levels of Consumption
  2. Patterns of Consumption
  3. Harms and Consequences
  4. Economic Aspects
  5. Alcohol Control Policies
  6. Prevention, Research and Treatment

Infographics

  1. The risk of dying from an alcohol-attributable cause (PDF)
  2. Alcohol and young women (PDF)
  3. European Action Plan to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol 2012–2020 (PDF)

Interactive graphs

Death rates liver cirrhosis

EISAH makes a number of in-depth explorations possible, through providing interactive graphs:

  • Recorded adult (15+ years) per capita consumption in litres of pure alcohol, from 1961
  • Age-standardized death rates of liver cirrhosis
  • Age limits for purchasing beer
  • Age limits for purchasing spirits
  • Age limits for purchasing wine
  • License requirement for beer production and retail sales
  • License requirement for wine production and retail sales
  • License requirement for spirits production and retail sales

Burden Of Disease

Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD)

The 2015 Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) is now in its 20th year.

The 2015 report is for the first time benchmarking countries based on a combination of income, education, and fertility. The 2015 GBD study reveals several surprising trends in population health, strong performance by some countries, and persistent challenges in others.

New results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 examine causes of death and categorise regions according to the Socio-demographic Index (SDI).

Rethinking Development and Health: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study (2015),

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME). Rethinking Development and Health: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study. Seattle, WA: IHME, 2016.

Alcohol and Public Health in the Americas. A case for action. Washington, D.C: PAHO, 2007

The Reage and Magnitude of Alcohol’s Harm to Others. Australia; Foundation for Alcohol Research and Education, 2nd Edition: February 2015

Status Report on Alcohol and Health in 35 European Countries 2013. WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2013

Alcohol use, drunkenness and tobacco smoking in rural western Kenya. T. Q. Lo1, J. E. Oeltmann2, F. O. Odhiambo3, C. Beynon4, E. Pevzner2, K. P. Cain2,3, K. F. Laserson3,5 and P. A. Phillips-Howar; April 2013

The Burden and Economic Impact of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in Canada; Svetlana Popova (Principal Investigator), Shannon Lange, Larry Burd and Jürgen Rehm; February 2015

Alcohol in Europe. A public health perspective. A report for the European Commission. Peter Anderson and Ben Baumberg; Institute of Alcohol Studies, UK June 2006

Alcohol, Gender and Drinking Problems. Perspectives from Low and Middle Income Countries.WHO, Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse, Geneva; 2005

Alcohol consumption, alcohol dependence and attributable burden of disease in Europe: Potential gains from effective interventions for alcohol dependence. Centre for Addiction and Mental Health; Canada; 2012

Violence prevention: the evidence. Series of briefings on violence prevention: the evidence. World Health Organization 2010

Estimating the societal costs of alcohol: a bridge too far? Thomas F. Babor; NAD; 2012

Global Health Risks. Mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks. World Health Organization; 2009

Global Status Report on Alcohol 2004. Health effects and global burden of disease. WHO, 2004

Alcohol, Health Inequalities and the Harm Paradox: Why some groups face greater problems despite consuming less alcohol. Institute of Alcohol Studies

Alcohol and health inequalities Summary briefing. IAS

Tackling Harmful Alcohol Use. Economics and public Health policy. OECD publishing; 2015

Regional Status Report on Alcohol and Health in the Americas. PAHO 2015

The role of alcohol in the global and regional burden of disease. Mats Ramstedt. 2004

A new alcohol environment. Trends in alcohol consumption, harms and policy: Finland 1990–2010. T. Karlsson & P. Mäkelä & E. Österberg & C. Tigerstedt; 2010

Addressing the harmful use of alcohol: a guide to developing effective alcohol legislation. WHO, 2011

Alcohol in the EU. Consumption, harm and policy approaches WHO 2012

Injuries and violence: The facts. WHO, 2014

Global status report on violence prevention. WHO, UNODC, UNDP 2014

Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health 2011. WHO 2011

Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health 2014. WHO 2014

Alcohol Policy

General

Alcohol: No Ordinary Commodity – a summary of the second edition, in Addiction, 2010

World Bank Papers: Alcohol-Related Problems as an Obstacle to the Development of Human Capital Issues, Policy Options, Cercone, 1994

THE EFFECTS OF NORDIC ALCOHOL POLICIES: What happens to drinking and harm when alcohol controls change? by Room, NAD Publication, 2oo2

Affordability

Price Policies to Reduce Alcohol-Related Harm in Canada, Alcohol Price Policy Series, Report 3 of 3, November 2012

Alcohol taxation policy in Thailand: implications for other low- to middle-income countries, by Sornpaisarn, Shield and Rehm, 2011

What happened to alcohol consumption and problems in the Nordic countries when alcohol taxes were decreased and borders opened?, by Room et. al., in IJADR, 2013

How to sell alcohol? Nordic alcohol monopolies in a changing epoch, by Cisneros and Olafsdottir, 2008

Prevention Paradox

Alcohol-Related Injuries: Evidence for the Prevention Paradox, by Spurling and Vinson, 2005

Availability

Outlet density

How Alcohol Outlets Affect Neighborhood Violence, by Stewart, PIRE

The association between alcohol outlet density and assaults on and around licensed premises, by Burgess and Mofett, 2011

Legal age

Case closed: research evidence on the positive public health impact of the age 21 minimum legal drinking age in the United States, by DeJong W, Blanchette J. 2014

Did the 18 drinking age promote high school dropout? Implications for current policy, by Plunk AD, Agrawal A, Tate WF, Cavazos-Rehg P, Bierut LJ, Grucza RA, 2015

Marketing

Monitoring Alcohol Marketing Practices in Africa (MAMPA project). Findings from The Gambia, Ghana, Nigeria and Uganda, 2011

Global Advertising Lawyers Alliance, 2011: Alcohol Advertising:_A Global Legal Perspective

Alcohol Industry

Access to Confidential Alcohol Industry Documents: From Big Tobacco to Big Booze

Vested Interests in Addiction Research and Policy: The influence of industry actions on the availability of alcoholic beverages in the African region, by Babor, Robaina, Jernigan, 2015

ActionAid investigation: Calling Time on Tax Avoidance

Pleasure, Profit and Pain: Alcohol in New Zealand and the Contemporary Culture of Intoxication

Profiting from Crisis: How corporations and lawyers are scavenging profits from Europe’s crisis countries, by the Transnational Institute and Corporate Europe Observatory

Selling addictions: Similarities in approaches between Big Tobacco and Big Booze, by Bond, Daube, Chikritzhs, 2010

Similarities in approach between Big Tobacco and Big Booze: Evidence of the “Greedy Bastard Hypothesis”?, by Ward, 2010

Evaluation of the evidence base for the alcohol industry’s actions to reduce drink driving globally, by Esser MB, Bao J, Jernigan DH, et al., 2016

Multinational alcohol market development and public health: Diageo in India, by Esser MB, Jernigan DH. 2015

The concentration of the global alcohol industry and its penetration in the African Region, by Jernigan DH, Babor T., 2015

Global alcohol producers, science and policy: The case of the International Center for Alcohol Policies, by Jernigan, 2012

The extent of global alcohol marketing and its impact on youth, by Jernigan, 2010

The global alcohol industry: an overview, by Jernigan, 2009

Trade

UNCTAD
“Structural transformation for inclusive and sustained growth”
Trade and Development Report, 2016

UNCTAD
“Making the international financial architecture work for development”
Trade and Development Report, 2015

UNCTAD
“Global governance and policy space for development”
Trade and Development Report, 2014

Review:
“Trade and Public Health: The WTO, Tobacco, Alcohol and Diet by Benn McGrady”
by Estalyn Marquis, in: Berkeley Journal of International Law, 2013

Jane Kelsey, 2012
“New-generation free trade agreements threaten progressive tobacco and alcohol policies”
In: Addiction

Jane Kelsey, 2012
“Trade and investment law issues relating to proposed tobacco control policies to achieve an effectively smokefree New Zealand by 2025”
A report to the New Zealand Tobacco Control Research Tūranga: A programme of innovative research to halve smoking prevalence in Aotearoa/New Zealand within a decade

Jane Kelsey, 2008
“Serving whose interests? The political economy of international trade in services agreements”

Jane Kelsey, 2008
“TPPA: Regulating for Tobacco & Alcohol in Thailand”
PowerPoint Slides

Khan, Pallot, Taylor, Kanavos, 2015
The TTIP:International Trade Law, Health Systems and Public Health

European Heart Network, 2015
“TTIP, international trade and cardiovascular health – a European Heart Network paper”

Donald W. Zeigler, 2008
“The alcohol industry and trade agreements: a preliminary assessment”
In: Addiction

Donald W. Zeigler, 2006
“International trade agreements challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies”
In: Drug and Alcohol Review

Curtis and Reynolds, 2015
“TTIP, ISDS and the Implications for Irish Public Health Policy”
A Report for the Irish Cancer Society

Grieshaber-Otto and Schacter, 2002
“The GATS: Impacts of ”services” treaty on health-based the international alcohol regulation”
In: NORDISK ALKOHOL- & NARKOTIKATIDSKRIFT

Parker and Alemanno, 2014
“Towards Effective Regulatory Cooperation under TTIP: A Comparative Overview of the EU and US Legislative and Regulatory Systems”
Report commissioned and financed by European Commission, DG TRADE

Walls, Smith and Drahos, 2015
“Improving regulatory capacity to manage risks associated with trade agreements”
In: Globalization and Health

Steele, Gilmore, McKee and Stuckler, 2015
“The role of public law-based litigation in tobacco companies’ strategies in high-income, FCTC ratifying countries, 2004–14”
In: Journal on Public Health

Koivusalo, 2014
“Policy space for health and trade and investment agreements”
In: Health Promotion International

Gaeta and Corsinovi, 2015
“Traditional Terms and Appellation wines: debates insight of TTIP negotiation”
Paper prepared for the 145th EAAE Seminar “Intellectual Property Rights for Geographical Indications: What is at Stake in the TTIP?”

Baumberg and Anderson, 2008
“HEALTH, ALCOHOL AND EU LAW: Understanding the impact of European Single Market law on alcohol policies”
In: European Journal of Public Health

Shaffer, Waitzkin, Brenner and Jasso-Aguilar, 2005
“Global Trade and Public Health”
In: American Journal of Public Health

Baumberg and Anderson, 2008
“DEBATING TRADE AND HEALTH: Developing the understanding of how far world trade law affects alcohol and public health”
In: Addiction

Samrat Ganguly, 1999
“The Investor-State Dispute Mechanism (ISDM) and a Sovereign’s Power to Protect Public Health”
In: COLUMBIA JOURNAL OF TRANSNATIONAL LAW

Fooks and Gilmore, 2013
“International trade law, plain packaging and tobacco industry political activity: the Trans-Pacific Partnership”
Published by: BMJ Group

Obstacle To Development

World Bank on Alcohol and Poverty. ADD Fact Sheet.2007

MDG Report 2014.United Nations; 2014

Addressing the Social Determinants of NCDs. Discussion Paper. UNDP; 2013

Drinking into deeper poverty. The new frontier for Chronic Poverty in Uganda. Uganda policy brief. 2007

Double Burden, Non-Communicable Diseases And Risk Factors Evaluation In Sub-Saharan Africa: The Nigerian Experience.European Journal of Sustainable Development (2012), 1, 2, 249-270

Alcohol Problems in Developing Countries: Challenges for the New Millennium. Charles D.H. Parry, Suchtmed 2S(u4c) h2t1m6e–d220(4)(2000

Alcohol, health disparities and development. WHO 2006

Alcohol HIV and Violence. Vladimir Poznyak, WHO, Oslo May 2015

Violence

Physical abuse, psychological abuse, and neglect: Evidence of alcohol-related harm to children in five states of India, by Esser M. B., Rao, G. N., Gururaj, G., et al., 2016

The hidden harm: alcohol’s impact on children and families. Foundation for Alcohol Research and Education 2015

A global overview of gender-based violence L. Heise, M. Ellsberg, M. Gottmoeller; 2002

Baseline survey on sexual and gender based violence in Rwanda UNIFEM, June 2008

Comprehensive Strategies to Prevent Alcohol-Related Violence Mark A. Bellis & Karen Hughes, 2008

Handbook for National Action Plans on Violence Against Women UNWOMEN, 2012

Global and regional estimates of violence against women: prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence. WHO, 2013

Vulnerability to Alcohol and Other Drug Disorders in Rural Women Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, Vol. XVII, No. 1 (February), 2003: pp 33-41

Drugs, Alcohol and Violence WHO Regional Office South-East Asia

What works to prevent partner violence Lori”L.”Heise, December 2011

Alcohol, domestic abuse and sexual assault IAS, 2014

Domestic violence in rural Uganda: evidence from a community-based study. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2003, 81 (1)

Unhappy Hours: Alcohol and Partner Aggression in the Americas. PAHO, 2008

World Bank: On Norms & Agency. Conversations about Gender Equality with Women and Men in 20 Countries

Addressing comprehensive needs of adolescent girls in India. A potential for creating livelihoods. ICRW, 2013.

The Lancet Special Series: Violence against women and girls. November 2014

Infectious Diseases

Tuberculosis

Rehm, J. et al (2009), The association between alcohol use, alcohol use disorders, and tuberculosis (TB). A systematic review. BMC Public Health, 9, 450

Research article: Alcohol use as a risk factor for tuberculosis – a systematic review, by Knut Lönnroth*, Brian G Williams, Stephanie Stadlin, Ernesto Jaramillo and Christopher Dye

Alcohol Exacerbates Murine Pulmonary Tuberculosis by Carol M. Mason, Elizabeth Dobard, and Steve Nelson et al

PEPFAR Southern & Eastern Africa Technical Consultation on Alcohol & HIV Prevention – Windhoek, 12-14 April 2011, by Prof Charles Parry: “Alcohol use and TB”

HIV/ AIDS

Alcohol as a Correlate of Unprotected Sexual Behavior Among People Living with HIV/AIDS: Review and Meta-Analysis. Paul A. Shuper , Narges Joharchi, Hyacinth Irving, Jürgen Rehm; December 2009, Volume 13, Issue 6, pp 1021-1036

Alcohol consumption and HIV/AIDS: the neglected interface. Michelle Schneider, Matthew Chersich, Manuela Neuman and Charles Parry; Addiction, 2012

Limits to evidence-based health policymaking: Policy hurdles to structural HIV prevention in Tanzania, by Moritz Hunsmann, 2012

Addressing gender inequality and intimate partner violence as critical barriers to an effective HIV response in sub-Saharan Africa. Charlotte Watts, Janet Seeley; 2014

Structural Interventions: Concepts, Challenges and Opportunities for Research
K. M. Blankenship,corresponding author S. R. Friedman, S. Dworkin, and J. E. Mantell; 2006

Strengthening the enabling environment for women and girls: what is the evidence in social and structural approaches in the HIV response? Karen Hardee, Jill Gay, Melanie Croce-Galis, Amelia Peltz; 2014

Addressing the structural drivers of HIV: a luxury or necessity for programmes?
Janet Seeley, Charlotte H Watts, Susan Kippax, Steven Russell, Lori Heise, Alan Whiteside; 2012

Addressing HIV Risk in Adolescent Girls and Young Women CSIS Report; April 2015

Trends in Socioeconomic Inequalities in HIV Prevalence among Young People in Seven Countries in Eastern and Southern Africa James R. Hargreaves, Calum Davey, Elizabeth Fearon, Bernadette Hensen, Shari Krishnaratne; PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0121775 March 20, 2015

Association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Mendelian randomisation analysis based on individual participant data. BMJ 2014;349:g4164 doi: 10.1136/bmj.g4164 (Published 10 July 2014)

Empower young women and adolescent girls: Fast-Track the end of the AIDS epidemic in Africa. UNAIDS, 2015

Gap report UNAIDS

NCDs

Alcohol, diabetes and public health interventions in the Americas, by Babor T, Rehm J, Jernigan D, Vaeth P, Monteiro M, Lehman H., PAHO Bulletin, 2012.

Preventing chronic diseases a vital investment. WHO, 2005

Alcohol and NCDs – a need for response. Robin Room, 2012

Economics of Non-Communicable Diseases in India Executive summary. WEF, November 2014

From Burden to “Best Buys”: Reducing the Economic Impact of Non-Communicable Diseases in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. WEF, 2011

Non-communicable diseases A priority for women’s health and development. NCD Alliance, 2011

Chronic Emergency: Why NCDs Matter Irina A. Nikolic, Anderson E. Stanciole, Mikhail Zaydman, July 2011

The World Bank approach to the growing danger of NCDs Dr Maryse Pierre‐Louis, Toronto, October 30th 2012

Addressing the Social Determinants of Noncommunicable Diseases Discussion Paper. UNDP 2013, October 2013

Evaluation of carcinogenic risks to human. Alcohol drinking. IACR Monographs. 1988

The Challenge of Non-Communicable Diseases and Road Traffic Injuries in Sub-Saharan Africa The World Bank Report, nr. 79293, June 2013

NCDs road map report July 2014

The Growing Danger of Non-Communicable Diseases. Acting Now to Reverse Course. The World Bank, September 2011

Addressing liver disease in the UK: a blueprint for attaining excellence in health care and reducing premature mortality from lifestyle issues of excess consumption of alcohol, obesity, and viral hepatitis. The Lancet Commission

Consequences of Alcohol Use in Diabetics. Alcohol Health & Research World, Vol. 22, No. 3, 1998

Drinking Patterns and Body Mass Index in Never Smokers. Am J Epidemiol 2005;161:368–376.September 2004

Alcoholic Beverage Consumption, Nutrient Intakes, and Diet Quality in the US Adult Population, 1999-2006. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, April 2010 Volume 110 Number 4

Measuring the Burden— Current and Future Research Trends. Results From the NIAAA Expert Panel on Alcohol and Chronic Disease Epidemiology. Rosalind A. Breslow, Ph.D., M.P.H., R.D., and Kenneth J. Mukamal, M.D.

Diets of drinkers on drinking and nondrinking days: NHANES 2003–20081–3. Am J Clin Nutr.2013;97:1068–75. Printed in USA. ! 2013 American Society for Nutrition

Mental Health

European Conference on Promotion of Mental Health and Social Inclusion

When Mental Health and Substance Abuse Problems Collide. Understanding, Preventing, Identifying and Addressing Mental Health Disorders and Substance Abuse Issues in Youth. Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse

Promoting Mental Health. Concepts. Emerging evidence. Practice. WHO, 2005

Children, Adolescents, Youth

Alcohol harm affecting child rights

Child Injury: Harm done by alcohol. Fact sheet. European Child Safety Alliance

Alcohol and society: Youth and young adults. A research report from IOGT-NTO and the Swedish Society of Medicine. 2013

Children Affected by Parental Alcohol Problems (ChAPAPs). Economic impact. Anna Marie Passon, Anna Drabik, Markus Lüngen, 2009

The impact of alcohol use disorders on family life. A review of the empirical literature. NDARC Technical Report Number:325, June 2014

Harm caused by illicit drugs to child rights

The Protection of Children from Illicit Drugs – A Minimum Human Rights Standard. A Child-Centered vs. a User-Centered Drug Policy. Stephan Dahlgren & Roxana Stere

The right of the child to be protected from narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances. A Human Rights/International Law perspective. Stephan Dahlgren and Roxana Stere, May, 2010

Article 3 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The Best Interest of the Child. Fatma Hassan Beshir, 2012

Young people and NEETs in Europe: First findings. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions

Drinking to belong. Understanding young adults’ alcohol use within social networks.Peter Seaman and Theresa Ikegwuonu, November 2010

Young People, Alcohol and Safer Public Spaces University of Auckland, PB 92019, June 2012

UNICEF Child Protection Strategy. UNICEF, 2008

Global Employment Outlook ILO report on youth unemployment, 2012

Economics Of Prevention

A Case for Investing in Youth Substance Abuse Prevention. The Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse

Economic Benefits of Preventing Disease

Cost-Benefit of Prevention. Review of research literature. Southwest Prevention Center University of Oklahoma, October 2014

Mental health promotion and mental illness prevention: The economic case. Editors: Martin Knapp, David McDaid and Michael Parsonage, Personal Social Services Research Unit, London School of Economics and Political Science, April 2011

The Economic Argument for Disease Prevention: Distinguishing Between Value and Savings. A Prevention Policy Paper Commissioned by Partnership for Prevention

The economic argument for the prevention of ill‐health at population level. or Working Group on Public Health Policy Framework May 2012

Grandparents Play an Important Role in Preventing their Grandchildren from Drinking and Using Drugs. 2012 The Partnership at Drugfree.org

What have we learned from economic analyses of prevention. Louise B. Russell, PhD; Australia, March 2009

International standars on drug use prevention. UNODC

The Economics of Prevention. Research Insights, 2012